Mr Nicholas Raison


Mr Raison has an extensive and active research portfolio. He is a permanent Clinical Senior Lecturer (Associate Professor) at King’s College London in the department of Surgical and Interventional Engineering.

Mr Raison’s research interests centre on the use of machine learning (AI) to assess surgical performance and improve perioperative outcomes. His clinical research focusses on improving outcomes for patients with benign (non-cancerous) bladder problems and is currently undertaking the first twins’ study of overactive bladder syndrome to explore the genetic links in this common disease.

Mr Raison has published extensively with over 85 publications in international scientific journals, numerous book chapters as well as editing journal special editions and textbooks. He holds a number of prominent positions in the European Association of Urology and takes an active role in leading research and educational projects across Europe. As part of this role Mr Raison is frequently invited to lecture at national and international conferences as well as present his research findings.

Mr Nicholas Raison

Publications and Presentations


The IDEAL framework for surgical robotics: development, comparative evaluation and long-term monitoring.
Marcus HJ, Ramirez PT, Khan DZ, Layard Horsfall H, Hanrahan JG, Williams SC, Beard DJ, Bhat R, Catchpole K, Cook A, Hutchison K, Martin J, Melvin T, Stoyanov D, Rovers M, Raison N, Dasgupta P, Noonan D, Stocken D, Sturt G, Vanhoestenberghe A, Vasey B, McCulloch P; IDEAL Robotics Colloquium.
Nature Medicine. 2024 Jan;30(1):61-75. doi: 10.1038/s41591-023-02732-7.


Current evidence of robotic-assisted surgery use in functional reconstructive and neuro-urology.
Tsoi H, Elnasharty SF, Culha MG, De Cillis S, Guillot-Tantay C, Hervé F, Hüesch T, Raison N, Phé V, Osman NI.
Ther Adv Urol. 2023 Dec 1;15:17562872231213727. doi: 10.1177/17562872231213727

Sacral neuromodulation in the management of chronic pelvic pain: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
Greig J, Mak Q, Furrer MA, Sahai A, Raison N.
Journal of Neurourology and Urodynamics. 2023 Mar 6. doi: 10.1002/nau.25167

Inheritance in overactive bladder syndrome.
Raison N, Malde S, Sahai A.
Nature Reviews Urology. 2023 Feb;20(2):61-62. doi: 10.1038/s41585-022-00667-1


A systematic review of treatment options for post-prostatectomy incontinence.
Canning A, Raison N, Aydin A, Cheikh Youssef S, Khan S, Dasgupta P, Ahmed K.
World Journal of Urology. 2022 Nov;40(11):2617-2626. doi: 10.1007/s00345-022-04146-5. Epub 2022 Sep 15

Comparing surgical interventions for interstitial cystitis: A systematic review.
Abelleyra Lastoria DA, Raison N, Aydin A, Khan S, Dasgupta P, Ahmed K
Journal Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms. 2022 Apr 8. doi: 10.1111/luts.12441.

Effect of Simulation-based Training on Surgical Proficiency and Patient Outcomes: A Randomised Controlled Clinical and Educational Trial.
Aydın A, Ahmed K, Abe T, Raison N, Van Hemelrijck M, Garmo H, Ahmed HU, Mukhtar F, Al-Jabir A, Brunckhorst O, Shinohara N, Zhu W, Zeng G, Sfakianos JP, Gupta M, Tewari A, Gözen AS, Rassweiler J, Skolarikos A, Kunit T, Knoll T, Moltzahn F, Thalmann GN, Lantz Powers AG, Chew BH, Sarica K, Shamim Khan M, Dasgupta P; SIMULATE Trial Group
European Urology. 2022 Apr;81(4):385-393. doi: 10.1016/j.eururo.2021.10.030.


Contemporary Management of Chronic Prostatitis.
Khattak AS, Raison N, Hawazie A, Khan A, Brunckhorst O, Ahmed K.
Cureus. 2021 Dec 7;13(12):e20243. doi: 10.7759/cureus.20243. eCollection 2021 Dec

Is tumour volume an independent predictor of outcome after radical prostatectomy for high-risk prostate cancer?
Raison N, Servian P, Patel A, Santhirasekaram A, Smith A, Yeung M, Lloyd J, Mannion E, Rockall A, Ahmed H, Winkler M.
Journal of Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Disease. 2021 Nov 29. doi: 10.1038/s41391-021-00468-4

An evaluation of live porcine simulation training for robotic surgery.
Raison N, Poulsen J, Abe T, Aydin A, Ahmed K, Dasgupta P.
Journal of Robotic Surgery. 2021 Jun;15(3):429-434. doi: 10.1007/s11701-020-01113-3

Non-technical skills for urological surgeons (NoTSUS): development and evaluation of curriculum and assessment scale.
Aydın A, Griffin CM, Brunckhorst O, Al-Jabir A, Raison N, Aya H, McIlhenny C, Brewin J, Shabbir M, Palou Redorta J, Khan MS, Dasgupta P, Ahmed K.
World Journal of Urology. 2021 Jun;39(6):2231-2237. doi: 10.1007/s00345-020-03406-6

Adapting Motor Imagery Training Protocols to Surgical Education: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
Goble MSL, Raison N, Mekhaimar A, Dasgupta P, Ahmed K.
Surgical Innovation. 2021 Mar 12. doi: 10.1177/1553350621990480

The SIMULATE ureteroscopy training curriculum: educational value and transfer of skills.
Aydın A, Ahmed K, Baig U, Raison N, Lantz Powers AG, Macchione N, Al-Jabir A, Abe T, Khan MS, Dasgupta P; SIMULATE Trial Contributors.
World Journal of Urology. 2021 Feb 3. doi: 10.1007/s00345-021-03604-w

Procedural virtual reality simulation training for robotic surgery: a randomised controlled trial.
Raison N, Harrison P, Abe T, Aydin A, Ahmed K, Dasgupta P.
Surgical Endoscopy. 2021 Jan 4. doi: 10.1007/s00464-020-08197-w


Radiosensitisation of Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Penis in Men Who Are Positive for Human Papillomavirus Infection.
Raison N, Minhas S.
European Urology Oncology. 2020 Dec 23:S2588-9311(20)30213-3. doi: 10.1016/j.euo.2020.12.005

A Review of the Management of Chronic Scrotal Pain.
Moubasher A, Waqar M, Raison N, Brunckhorst O, Ahmed K.
Cureus. 2020 Dec 8;12(12):e11979. doi: 10.7759/cureus.11979.

The PROCESS 2020 Guideline: Updating Consensus Preferred Reporting of Case Series in Surgery (PROCESS) Guidelines.
Agha RA, Sohrabi C, Mathew G, Franchi T, Kerwan A, O’Neill N; PROCESS Group.
International Journal of Surgery. 2020 Dec;84:231-235. doi: 10.1016/j.ijsu.2020.11.005.

The SCARE 2020 Guideline: Updating Consensus Surgical CAse REport (SCARE) Guidelines.
Agha RA, Franchi T, Sohrabi C, Mathew G, Kerwan A; SCARE Group.
International Journal of Surgery. 2020 Dec;84:226-230. doi: 10.1016/j.ijsu.2020.10.034

Development and validation of a porcine organ model for training in essential laparoscopic surgical skills.
Higuchi M, Abe T, Hotta K, Morita K, Miyata H, Furumido J, Iwahara N, Kon M, Osawa T, Matsumoto R, Kikuchi H, Kurashima Y, Murai S, Aydin A, Raison N, Ahmed K, Khan MS, Dasgupta P, Shinohara N.
International Journal of Urology. 2020 Oct;27(10):929-938. doi: 10.1111/iju.14315

Non-technical skills for urological surgeons (NoTSUS): development and evaluation of curriculum and assessment scale.
Aydın A, Griffin CM, Brunckhorst O, Al-Jabir A, Raison N, Aya H, McIlhenny C, Brewin J, Shabbir M, Palou Redorta J, Khan MS, Dasgupta P, Ahmed K.
World J Urol. 2020 Aug 18. doi: 10.1007/s00345-020-03406-6

Treatment options for localised renal cell carcinoma of the transplanted kidney.
Motta G, Ferraresso M, Lamperti L, Di Paolo D, Raison N, Perego M, Favi E.
World Journal of Transplantation. 2020 Jun 29;10(6):147-161. doi: 10.5500/wjt.v10.i6.147.

A systematic review of simulation-based training tools for technical and non-technical skills in ophthalmology.
Lee R, Raison N, Lau WY, Aydin A, Dasgupta P, Ahmed K, Haldar S.
Eye (Lond). 2020 Mar 13. doi: 10.1038/s41433-020-0832-1

Allograft artery mycotic aneurysm after kidney transplantation: A case report and review of literature.
Bindi M, Ferraresso M, De Simeis ML, Raison N, Clementoni L, Delbue S, Perego M, Favi E.
World J Clin Cases. 2020 Mar 6;8(5):912-921. doi: 10.12998/wjcc.v8.i5.912

The role of partial orchidectomy in the management of small testicular tumours: fertility and endocrine function.
Raison N, Warrington J, Alnajjar HM, Muneer A, Ahmed K.
Andrology. 2020 Mar 13. doi: 10.1111/andr.12786

Virtually Competent: A Comparative Analysis of Virtual Reality and Dry-Lab Robotic Simulation Training.
Raison N, Gavazzi A, Abe T, Ahmed K, Dasgupta P.
Journal of Endourology. 2020 Jan 23. doi: 10.1089/end.2019.0541


Non-technical skills: a review of training and evaluation in urology.
Griffin C, Aydın A, Brunckhorst O, Raison N, Khan MS, Dasgupta P, Ahmed K.
World Journal of Urology. 2019 Sep 17. doi: 10.1007/s00345-019-02920-6

Systematic review of ablative therapy for the treatment of renal allograft neoplasms.
Favi E, Raison N, Ambrogi F, Delbue S, Clementi MC, Lamperti L, Perego M, Bischeri M, Ferraresso M.
World J Clin Cases. 2019 Sep 6;7(17):2487-2504. doi: 10.12998/wjcc.v7.i17.2487

The effect of repeated full immersion simulation training in ureterorenoscopy on mental workload of novice operators.
Abe T, Dar F, Amnattrakul P, Aydin A, Raison N, Shinohara N, Khan MS, Ahmed K, Dasgupta P
BMC Med Educ. 2019 Aug 22;19(1):318. doi: 10.1186/s12909-019-1752-2

Testosterone Therapy for High-risk Prostate Cancer Survivors: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.
Teeling F, Raison N, Shabbir M, Yap T, Dasgupta P, Ahmed K.
Urology. 2019 Apr;126:16-23. doi: 10.1016/j.urology.2018.07.064. Epub 2018 Sep 21

Mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma of the urethra.
Raison N, McGovern U, Hines J, Volanis D
BMJ Case Rep. 2019 Mar 21;12(3). pii: e227948. doi: 10.1136/bcr-2018-227948

Incidence, risk factors, and outcome of BK polyomavirus infection after kidney transplantation.
Favi E, Puliatti C, Sivaprakasam R, Ferraresso M, Ambrogi F, Delbue S, Gervasi F, Salzillo I, Raison N, Cacciola R
World J Clin Cases. 2019 Feb 6;7(3):270-290. doi: 10.12998/wjcc.v7.i3.270


Intra-operative Postperfusion Micronephrolithotomy for Renal Allograft Lithiasis: A Case Report.
Favi E, Raison N, Zanetti S, Sampogna G, Montanari E, Ferraresso M
Transplant Proc. 2018 Dec;50(10):3950-3953. doi: 10.1016/j.transproceed.2018.05.017. Epub 2018 May 29

Development of a technical checklist for the assessment of suturing in robotic surgery.
Guni A, Raison N, Challacombe B, Khan S, Dasgupta P, Ahmed K.
Surg Endosc. 2018 Sep 7. doi: 10.1007/s00464-018-6407-6.

Robot-assisted laparoscopic pyeloplasty: a single-centre experience.
Wood TC, Raison N, El-Hage O, Ahmed K, Cahill D, Challacombe BJ, Khan MS, Dasgupta P.
Surg Endosc. 2018 May 17. doi: 10.1007/s00464-018-6212-2. [Epub ahead of print]

Cognitive Training for Technical and Non-Technical Skills in Robotic Surgery: A Randomised Controlled Trial.
Raison N, Ahmed K, Abe T, Brunckhorst O, Novara G, Buffi N, McIlhenny C, Van der Poel H, Van Hemelrijck M, Gavazzi A, Dasgupta P.
BJU Int. 2018 May 7. doi: 10.1111/bju.14376

Development and validation of a training and assessment tool for laparoscopic radical nephrectomy.
Lovegrove C, Bruce E, Raison N, Khan S, Brown C, Rane A, Sheriff M, Dasgupta P, Ahmed K.
Actas Urol Esp. 2018 Mar 30. pii: S0210-4806(18)30033-0. doi: 10.1016/j.acuro.2017.10.007

Establishing objective benchmarks in robotic virtual reality simulation at the level of a competent surgeon using the RobotiX Mentor simulator.
Watkinson W, Raison N, Abe T, Harrison P, Khan S, Van der Poel H, Dasgupta P, Ahmed K.
Postgrad Med J. 2018 May;94(1111):270-277. doi: 10.1136/postgradmedj-2017-135351

The controversy of social media at conferences.
Ghose A, Warren HR, Raison N, Dasgupta P.
BJU Int. 2018 Mar 6. doi: 10.1111/bju.14185

3D printing in robotic assisted radical prostatectomy – an IDEAL Phase 2a study.
Chandak P, Byrne N, Lynch H, Allen C, Rottenberg G, Chandra A, Raison N, Ahmed H, Kasivisvanathan V, Elhage O, Dasgupta P.
BJU Int. 2018 Mar 6. doi: 10.1111/bju.14189

The Effect of Visual-Spatial Ability on the Learning of Robot-Assisted Surgical Skills.
Abe T, Raison N, Shinohara N, Shamim Khan M, Ahmed K, Dasgupta P.
J Surg Educ. 2018 Mar – Apr;75(2):458-464. doi: 10.1016/j.jsurg.2017.08.017.

Editorial Comment on: Competency-Based Training and Simulation: Making a “Valid” Argument by Noureldin et al.
Raison N, Dasgupta P.
J Endourol. 2018 Feb;32(2):94-95. doi: 10.1089/end.2017.0859

Male circumcision for the prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition: a meta-analysis.
Sharma SC, Raison N, Khan S, Shabbir M, Dasgupta P, Ahmed K.
BJU Int. 2018 Apr;121(4):515-526. doi: 10.1111/bju.14102. Epub 2018 Jan 29. Review.


The Validation of a Novel Robot-Assisted Radical Prostatectomy Virtual Reality Module.
Harrison P, Raison N, Abe T, Watkinson W, Dar F, Challacombe B, Van Der Poel H, Khan MS, Dasgupa P, Ahmed K.
J Surg Educ. 2017 Sep 30. pii: S1931-7204(17)30353-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jsurg.2017.09.005

Mental training in surgical education: a systematic review.
Davison S, Raison N, Khan MS, Dasgupta P, Ahmed K.
ANZ J Surg. 2017 Nov;87(11):873-878. doi: 10.1111/ans.14140. Epub 2017 Aug 29. Review.

Validation of the Advanced Scope Trainer for Flexible Ureterorenoscopy Training.
Al-Jabir A, Aydin A, Abe T, Raison N, Khan MS, Dasgupta P, Ahmed K
Urology. 2017 Dec;110:45-50. doi: 10.1016/j.urology.2017.07.047

Development and validation of a tool for non-technical skills evaluation in robotic surgery-the ICARS system
Raison N, Wood T, Brunckhorst O, Abe T, Ross T, Challacombe B, Khan MS, Novara G, Buffi N, Van Der Poel H, McIlhenny C, Dasgupta P, Ahmed K
Surg Endosc. 2017 Dec;31(12):5403-5410. doi: 10.1007/s00464-017-5622-x

Cytoreductive therapy in the era of targeted therapies: a review
N Pindoria, N Raison, G Blecher, R Carterwell, P Dasgupta
BJU Int. 2017 Sep;120(3):320-328. doi: 10.1111/bju.13860

Ischaemic priapism: A clinical review
Ridgley J, Raison N, Sheikh MI, Dasgupta P, Khan MS, Ahmed K
Turk J Urol. 2017 Mar;43(1):1-8. doi: 10.5152/tud.2017.59458

Alpha blockers in the management of ureteric lithiasis: A meta-analysis
N Raison, K Ahmed, O Brunckhorst, P Dasgupta
International Journal of Clinical Practice. 2017 Jan;71(1). doi: 10.1111/ijcp.12917

The Rise of Altmetrics
H Warren, N Raison, P Dasgupta
JAMA. 2017 Jan 10;317(2):131-132. doi: 10.1001/jama.2016.18346

Getting Personal with Prostate Cancer: DNA Repair Defects and olaparib in metastatic prostate cancer
N Raison, O Elhage, P Dasgupta
BJU Int. 2017 Jan;119(1):8-9. doi: 10.1111/bju.13522


Training Tools for Non-technical Skills for Surgeons-A Systematic Review
T Wood, N Raison, S Haldar, O Brunckhorst, C McIlhenny, P Dasgupta, K Ahmed
Journal of Surgical Education. 2016 Dec 20. pii: S1931-7204(16)30328-2. doi: 10.1016/j.jsurg.2016.11.017

The diagnosis and management of small renal masses
V Kasivisvanathan, N Raison, B Challacombe
International Journal of Surgery. 2016 Dec;36(Pt C):493-494. doi: 10.1016/j.ijsu.2016.11.096

Preferred reporting of case series in surgery; the PROCESS guidelines
R Agha, A Fowler, S Rajmohan, I Barai, P Orgill; PROCESS Group
International Journal of Surgery. 2016 Dec;36(Pt A):319-323. doi: 10.1016/j.ijsu.2016.10.025.

Challenging situations in partial nephrectomy
N Raison, N Doeuk, T Malthouse, V Kasivisvanathan, W Lam, B Challacombe
International Journal of Surgery. 2016 Dec;36(Pt C):568-573. doi: 10.1016/j.ijsu.2016.05.070

The future of partial nephrectomy
T Malthouse, V Kasivisvanathan, N Raison, W Lam, B Challacombe
International Journal of Surgery. 2016 Dec;36(Pt C):560-567. doi: 10.1016/j.ijsu.2016.03.024

Is extended pelvic lymph node dissection for prostate cancer the only recommended option? A systematic over-view of the literature
T Rees, N Raison, M Sheikh, Z Jaffry, S Madaan, B Challacombe, K Ahmed, P Dasgupta
Turkish Journal of Urology. 2016 Dec;42(4):240-246

Competency based training in robotic surgery: benchmark scores for virtual reality robotic simulation
N Raison, K Ahmed, N Fossati, N Buffi, A Mottrie, P Dasgupta, H Van Der Poel
BJU Int. 2016 Nov 10. doi: 10.1111/bju.13710

Clarifying the PSA grey zone: The management of patients with a borderline PSA
T Ross, K Ahmed, N Raison, B Challacombe, P Dasgupta
International Journal of Clinical Practice. 2016 Nov;70(11):950-959. doi: 10.1111/ijcp.12883

Final robotic frontier: the evolution and current state of robot-assisted radical cystectomy
T Tran, N Raison, N Doeuk, P Dasgupta
BJU Int. 2016 Nov;118(5):675-676. doi: 10.1111/bju.13471

Cognitive training: How can it be adapted for surgical education?
L Wallace, N Raison, F Ghumman, A Moran, P Dasgupta, K Ahmed
Surgeon. 2016 Sep 19. pii: S1479-666X(16)30057-9. doi: 10.1016/j.surge.2016.08.003

Simulation-based training and assessment in urological surgery
A Aydin, N Raison, MS Khan, P Dasgupta, K Ahmed
Nature Reviews Urology. 2016 Sep;13(9):503-19. doi: 10.1038/nrurol.2016.147

Validation of the RobotiX Mentor Robotic Surgery Simulator
G Whittaker, A Aydin, N Raison, F Kum, B Challacombe, MS Khan, P Dasgupta, K Ahmed
Journal of Endourology. 2016 Mar;30(3):338-46. doi: 10.1089/end.2015.0620


Pioglitazone and Bladder Cancer
H Warren, N Raison, P Dasgupta
BJU Int. 2015 Oct. doi: 10.1111/bju.13352

The Role of Simulation in Surgical Training
N Raison, K Ahmed, P Dasgupta
European Urology Focus. 2015 Sept; S2405-4569(15)00089-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.euf.2015.07.004

Telemedicine in Surgery: What are the Opportunities and Hurdles to Realising the Potential?
N Raison, MS Khan, B Challacombe
Current Urology Reports. 2015 Jul;16(7):43. doi: 10.1007/s11934-015-0522-x. PMID: 26025497

Autotransplantation for the management of ketamine ureteritis
N Raison, T O’Brien, D Game, J Olsburgh
BMJ Case Rep. 2015 Apr 9;2015. pii: bcr2014207652. doi: 10.1136/bcr-2014-207652.

Clinical utility of robot-assisted radical prostatectomy: advances and current status
P Sturch, N Raison, B Challacombe
Robotic Surgery: Research and Reviews March 2015 Volume 2015:2 Pages 43—49, doi.org: 0.2147/RSRR.S50261 [Review]

The robot to the rescue! Editorial on robotic management of genitourinary injuries from
obstetric and gynaecological operations: a multi-institutional report of outcomes
N Raison, B Challacombe
BJU Int. 2015 Mar;115(3):349-50. doi: 10.1111/bju.12856.

Opening the Flood Gates: Holmium Laser Enucleation and Photoselective Vaporization of the Prostate for Patients with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia and Chronic Urinary Retention
N Raison, B Challacombe
BJU Int. 2015 Feb;115(2):295-9. doi: 10.1111/bju.12674 [Editorial]


The reliability of red flags in spinal cord compression
N Raison, W Alwan, A Abbot, M Farook, A Khaleel
Archives of Trauma Research, 2014 Mar 30;3(1):e17850. doi: 10.5812/atr.1785

Lasers in Benign in Prostatic Hyperplasia
N Raison, G Muir
Urology News, 2014 January: V18(2);11-14. ISBN 1368-8960